1. Which type of soil would water infiltrate most slowly?
1) silt 3) fine sand
2) pebbles 4) fine clay
2. Which property of water makes frost action a common
and effective form of weathering?
1) Water dissolves many earth materials.
2) Water expands when it freezes.
3) Water cools the surroundings when it evaporates.
4) Water loses 334 Joules of heat per gram when it
3. Water is a major agent of chemical weathering because
1) cools the surroundings when it evaporates
2) dissolves many of the minerals that make up rocks
3) has a density of about one gram per cubic centimeter
4) has the highest specific heat of all common earth
4. Two different kinds of minerals, A and B, were placed in
the same container and shaken for 15 minutes. The
diagrams below represent the size and shape of the
various pieces of mineral before and after shaking. What
caused the resulting differences in shapes and sizes of
1) Mineral B was shaken harder.
2) Mineral B had a glossy luster.
3) Mineral A was more resistant to abrasion.
4) Mineral A consisted of smaller pieces before
5. A large rock is broken into several smaller pieces.
Compared to the rate of weathering of the large rock, the
rate of weathering of the smaller pieces is
1) less 3) the same
6. Which change would cause the topsoil in West Virginia
to increase in thickness?
1) an increase in slope
2) an increase in biologic activity
3) a decrease in rainfall
4) a decrease in air temperature
7. The major source of sediments found on the deep ocean
1) erosion of continental rocks
2) submarine landslides from the mid-ocean ridges
3) icebergs that have broken off of continental glaciers
4) submarine volcanic eruptions
8. For which movement of earth materials is gravity not the
1) sediments flowing in a river
2) boulders carried by a glacier
3) snow tumbling in an avalanche
4) moisture evaporating from an ocean
9. Stream A has a steeper slope than stream B. However,
the average water velocity of stream B is greater than
that of stream A. Which is the most reasonable
explanation for this?
1) Stream B has more friction to overcome along its
2) Stream B has a higher average temperature.
3) Stream B has a greater volume of water.
4) Stream B has a curved streambed.
10. The diagram below represents a stream valley. Which
diagram below best shows how this valley might be
modified after a glacier has moved through it?
11. Most of the surface bedrock in New York State south of
latitude 43º N. and west of longitude 75º W. was formed
during which period?
1) Silurian 3) Cambrian
2) Devonian 4) Ordovician